German Historian who wrote about the Third Reich and argued that Nazi Germany was not a totalitarian regime.
He received his education from the University of Leipzig and the University of Cologne.
He held his post as professor at Munich's Institute of Contemporary History from 1955 until 1989. He later taught at the University of Konstanz.
He and Alice Welter wed in 1953; they had three children together.
He disagreed with historians who felt that Adolf Hitler knew nothing of the Holocaust, but he did argue that Hitler never gave a written order for what was euphemistically called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question."