Painter and photographer who pioneered American Modernism and was known for his precise, linear images. He and Paul Strand were behind the film, "Manhatta," from 1920.
He attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where he was a student of the famed William Merritt Chase, and first exhibited his work at New York's Macbeth Gallery in 1908.
He frequently painted and photographed machinery and urban structures and was commissioned by the Ford Motor Company to create a series of paintings and photographs detailing its automotive factories.
He grew up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He and his lifelong friend, artist Morton Schamberg, lived together in a farmhouse in Doylestown, Pennsylvania.
He was inspired by Pablo Picasso's paintings.