New York-born biologist who studied embryonic development in marine organisms. He is especially remembered for researching the effects of messenger RNA on embryonic differentiation.
He studied chemistry at New York University and went on to receive a PhD in biology from the California Institute of Technology.
At the time of his death, he was studying the cellular biology of sea urchin eggs.
He grew up in New York City and later moved to Pasadena, California.
He and Japanese scientist Osamu Shimomura both had careers as marine biologists.