Influential philosopher who wrote in his essay Social Evolution that religion aids in human group survival.
He worked at an obscure job for 17 years at the Inland Revenue Department in Somerset House of the Civil Service, studying and writing in his spare time.
His Social Evolution was translated into more than 10 languages after publication, including German, Swedish, Arabic, Italian, Czech.
He married Emma Isabel Perry in 1887 and the couple had three boys.
His philosophy was inspired by Karl Marx, but as it developed, it differed from Marx in several ways.