Iconic leader in the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements who believed that all Americans and Europeans of African descent should return to Africa.
He worked as a time-keeper on a banana plantation in Costa Rica for several months while traveling around the Caribbean and Europe.
He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica in 1914 and, by 1920, there were millions of members worldwide.
He married Amy Jacques in 1922 and had two children with her.
He was influenced by and corresponded with Booker T. Washington.