Indian nonfiction author and historian known for his work on issues affecting Indian practitioners of Islam. His best-known works include Islam in Modern India and the Encyclopedia of World Geography.
He served as Director of the Osmania University branch of the Indian Council of Social Science Research.
He lectured in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Malaysia, and France, among other countries.
He was born and raised in Hyderabad, India.
He and Pakistani scholar Tariq Jameel both became known for their lectures on social issues affecting the Islamic world.