A medieval Iranian poet, mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer, he is best known for his rubaiyat (poetry quatrains). He is also famous for his groundbreaking Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra.
He taught astronomy and mathematics and, at one point, worked as an astrologer in the royal court.
He used his knowledge of astronomy to reform the Persian calendar.
He was born in Northern Iran to a family of tent-makers.
Edward Fitzgerald translated Khayyam's poetry into English.