Head of the Catholic Church from 1800 to his death in 1823 who spent much of his reign in conflict with Napoleon Bonaparte.
He joined the Benedictine Order in 1756 at the Abbey of St. Maria del Monte of Cesena.
He was exiled in 1809 after Napoleon Bonaparte occupied and annexed the Papal States.
He was raised in an Italian noble family.
Napoleon Bonaparte ended his exile after he signed the Concordat of Fontainebleau in 1813.