Remembered for his tremendous contributions to the mathematical sub-fields and concepts of number theory, analysis, continued fractions, and infinite series, he famously collaborated with the British mathematician G. H. Hardy. Over the course of his very brief lifetime, he formulated nearly four thousand mathematical equations and identities.
In his mid teens, he read G.S. Carr's A Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics and was inspired by the work to tackle numerous advanced mathematical concepts and theorems.
Remarkably, he was largely a self-taught abstract (pure) mathematician. He did attend some university mathematics courses, but he never received a degree because he failed most of his non-math courses.
A native of Erode, Madras Presidency, India, he was the son of K. Srinivasa Iyengar and Komalatammal. A decade before his premature death, he married a child bride named Janakiammal.
He was a contemporary of American mathematician Oswald Veblen.