Poet, translator, and literary critic whose poetic work, Phrase/Paraphrase, was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize. He received the Poetry Society of America's James Joyce Award in 1974.
He began his journalistic career with the St. Louis Star-Times while he was still in his teens.
He worked as a translator for the U.S. Army Air Corps during the World War II years.
He grew up in St. Louis, Missouri and later worked as a literary critic for both the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
He was a contemporary of Ezra Pound and was greatly influenced by Pound's literary work.