Anthropologist, scientist, and politician who founded three political parties in Senegal. He has done important work on pre-colonial African culture and other ancient civilizations.
He studied Philosophy and Chemistry at the Sorbonne in Paris, after earning his bachelor's degree in Senegal.
He has studied the history of Egypt and human race origins and has promoted the idea of cultural unity among Africans.
He was born into an aristocratic Muslim family.
He was in opposition to President Leopold Sedar Senghor.