Peruvian writer, journalist, and advocate for women and indigenous peoples. Her controversial, politically-themed novels include Aves Sin Nido, Herencia, and Indole.
She studied history, physics, and philosophy at the Escuela Nacional de Educandas.
She was sent into exile in 1900 by the dictator of Peru, who viewed her literary work as a challenge to his regime.
Her husband died in 1881, and she was left bankrupt. She later supported herself by working as a newspaper editor.
She has been described as a Peruvian Gertrude Stein.