For the last ten years of his life, this member of the prominent House of Wittelsbach served as King of Germany.
The child of Beatrice of Aragaon and Elector Palatine Rupert II, he was born in Bavaria's Upper Palatinate region and raised primarily in a Dominican monastery near Worms, Germany.
At the end of the fourteenth century, he became a key member of a German governing body known as the Electoral Palatinate.
His marriage to Elisabeth of Hohenzollern resulted in six sons and three daughters, including Count Palatine John of Neumarkt and Margaret of the Palatinate.
Several centuries apart, he and Frederick William IV both ruled Germany.