Soviet chess master who was perhaps the best player in the Soviet Union during the 1960s.
He served in the Soviet Army and in 1955 and 1956, he tied for first place in the individual Army Championship.
He won the Soviet Championship in 1963, 1965 and 1966 and the Ukrainian Championship in 1960 and 1962.
He was raised in a Jewish family in Ukraine.
He and Borislav Ivkov were top Soviet players in the 1960s.