In 2012, Sereno was appointed Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court. Previously, she had served as an Associate Justice and had headed two organizations: Accesslaw Inc. and the Asian Institute of Management Policy Center.
After receiving a degree in economics from Ateneo de Manila University, she earned a second bachelor's degree (in law) from the University of the Philippines and went on to study at the University of Michigan's Law School.
For nearly two decades, she taught at the University of the Philippines' law school.
Her marriage to Mario Jose Sereno produced two children.
Sereno and fellow female lawmaker Alicia Austria-Martinez both served during the early 2000s as Associate Justices of the Philippine Supreme Court.