Also known as "Mr. Clean," this popular Chief Minister of the eastern Indian state of Odisha founded the Biju Janata Dal political party and dedicated his career to eradicating high-level political corruption.
During the 1960s, he studied at Delhi University's Kirori Mal College. Three decades later, he began his political career.
A writer as well as a politician, he published a number of nonfiction works, including A Desert Kingdom: The People of Bikaner and The Garden of Life: An Introduction to the Healing Plants of India.
His father, Biju Patnaik, also served as Chief Minister of Odisha.
He and Gujarat state politician Narendra Modi served as Chief Ministers of their respective Indian regions.