Twentieth-century French poet known for Le temps deborde, Capitale de la douleur, and other works. He is remembered as a founder of literary surrealism.
He was sent to a Swiss sanatorium at age sixteen after he became ill from tuberculosis.
He joined the French Communist Party and voiced his support for Joseph Stalin. These actions resulted in his alienation from the surrealist movement.
He was married three times: first, to Elena Ivanovna Diakonova (who eventually left him for Salvador Dali); next, to a model and surrealist icon named Nusch (Maria Bens); and finally, to Dominique Laure.
He collaborated with German artist Max Ernst. Ernst later lived in a sexual arrangement with Eluard and Elena Ivanovna Diakonova.