Head of the Catholic Church from 1922 until his death in 1939 who fostered and concluded a record number of concordats during his reign.
He obtained doctorates in philosophy, canon law, and theology at the Gregorian University in Rome.
He helped bring about the Lateran Treaty, which resolved hostility between the Church and the Italian government.
His father owned a silk factory in Milan.
He was one of the few leaders in Europe to speak out against Benito Mussolini's anti-semitic and racist policies.