Soviet revolutionary who was leader of the Communist Party of Estonia. He became the first Premier of Soviet Estonia after leading the leftist revolutionaries in a revolution in Tallinn in 1917.
He was educated at St. Petersburg University.
He was imprisoned during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge in 1937, and died from the beatings he suffered.
He was raised by a peasant family in Oorgu, Estonia.
He fought in opposition to the regime of Joseph Stalin.