A molecular biologist, who won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his study of the structures of hemoglobin. He also won the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1971 and the Copley Medal in 1979.
He was exiled from Austria because of his Jewish ancestry when Nazi Germany annexed that country prior to World War II.
He worked during his final years to find a cure to Huntington disease.
He had two children with his wife Gisela Clara Peiser, who he married in 1942.
He was highly critical of Richard Dawkins' attack on religion and believed it was damaging to science.