Secretary of Defense under Presidents
After studying at Berkeley and Harvard, he used his analytical abilities for the U.S. Army Air Corps in WW II and Ford - helping to revive the flagging fortunes of the latter.
After the Gulf of Tonkin incidents of 1964, in which U.S. warships may have been attacked, he backed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution to bring U.S. forces into Vietnam.
His longtime wife Margaret founded the nonprofit organization Reading is Fundamental.
He was critical of George W. Bush's administration of their decision to go to war in Afghanistan.