Senator in Algeria's Council of the Nation who led Algeria's National Liberation Front during the country's war for independence, which occurred from 1954 to 1962.
He was an apprentice baker before joining the nationalist Parti du Peuple Algerien party in 1945.
His memoirs, Souvenirs de la Bataille d'Alger, were made into the classic 1965 film The Battle of Algiers.
His parents were illiterate.
He was captured by the French military and sentenced to death but was eventually pardoned after Charles de Gaulle returned to power in 1958.