German psychologist and phenomenologist who made great contributions to the creation of Gestalt psychology. His 1918 book The Mentality of Apes tackled the complex subject of problem solving.
He was educated at the University of Tubingen, the University of Bonn, and the University of Berlin.
He became professor and director of the Psychological Institute at the University of Berlin in the early 1920s.
He was born in Reval, which is now Tallinn, to a family of German origin.
He was born in the same country as poet Ivar Ivask.