Creator of what became known in India as middle cinema and director of award-winning films Ankur and Nashant.
He made his first film at age 12 on a camera given to him by his father.
He won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi over half a dozen times.
His daughter Pia was a costume designer.
He and director Adoor Gopalakrishnan were both given the highest award in Indian cinema for lifetime achievement, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award.