Remembered for her research on agriculture and economics, she wrote an important 1965 work titled The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure.
Beginning at the age of nineteen, she studied theoretical economics at the University of Copehagen.
A lifelong advocate of educational and professional opportunities for women, she conducted important research regarding the role of women in the economic development of Third World countries.
In her early twenties, she married Mogens Boserup. Between 1937 and 1944, the couple welcomed one daughter and two sons.
She proposed her theory of the relationship between agriculture and economics as an alternative to the older and less humanistic theory of fellow economist Thomas Malthus.