Latvian politician who was the secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1925 to 1927. He initially collaborated with the Nazis during World War II but soon began to sabotage their plans from within due to his opposition to Nazi policies against rural Jews.
He studied at the Riga Polytechnical Institute, which had been evacuated to Moscow.
He emigrated to the United States in 1949 and became an instructor at Syracuse University after being arrested by the Gestapo in 1944, and imprisoned in Flossenbürg concentration camp.
His parents raised him in Riga, Latvia.
He and Alexander Tamir were both from Latvia.