In the same year in which he earned an Oscar nomination for his role as Father Damien Karras in the classic horror movie The Exorcist, Miller received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his stage play That Championship Season.
After graduating from the Catholic University of America, he briefly pursued a career as a high school English teacher.
He helped found the Scranton Public Theatre in Pennsylvania.
He grew up in an Irish Catholic family in Queens, New York, and later married Tony-nominated actress Linda Gleason (with whom he had an actor son named Jason Patrick). Following his divorce from Gleason, he married and divorced both fellow writer and entertainer Susan Bernard (with whom he had another actor son, Joshua John Miller) and Ruth Josem.
Actor Paul Sorvino appeared in the original Broadway production of Miller's acclaimed play That Championship Season.